Level Five Instructional Material
Eight additional constructions will enable
you to explain almost every word in any sentence that you read or write.
Some nouns function as adverbs, usually to indicate a spatial or temporal orientation: "The plane crashed five miles from here." The construction is close to the prepositional phrase:
In a few cases we have the rather odd case of adverbs functioning as nouns that function as adverbs. Consider, for example,
Direct address is similar to an interjection except that it indicates the person spoken to:
# 4 Delayed Subjects and Sentences
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Retained complements are simply predicate nouns, predicate adjectives, or direct or indirect objects that appear after passive verbs, whether finite or verbals:
b.) Terri was made a queen for a day.
"Murray was considered foolish" is the passive form of the active: "Someone considered Murray foolish." "Murray" is the subject, and "foolish" is the predicate adjective of the ellipsed infinitive "to be," which functions as the direct object of "considered." In the passive version, the ellipsed infinitive is the retained object and "foolish" is a predicate adjective after it.Rather than go through this cumbersome technical explanation, you can simply state "retained predicate adjective" or "retained predicate noun."
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"Post-Positioned Adjective" is not a category that is required to explain how every word in every sentence relates to the main S/V/C pattern, but it can save time and explanation. Suppose, for example, that we were analyzing the sentence:
after a hard day of play.
quiet and peaceful after a hard day of play.]
To avoid the lengthy explanation, it is easier simply to consider such words as "post-positioned adjectives." In effect, the post-positioned adjective results from the reduction of an adjectival clause that has a S/V/PA pattern, just as an appositive is the reduction of an adjectival clause that has a S/V/PN pattern:
She was watching her son, the fullback on the high school team.As sentences become more heavily embedded, post-positioned adjectives can be separated from the word they modify by a number of other constructions. Consider the following sentence from the Lambs' version of Shakespeare's The Tempest:
Prospero, who had enjoined Ferdinand this task merely as a trial of his love, was not at his books, as his daughter supposed, but was standing by them invisible, to overhear what they said.
This material has been expanded and put on a separate pages.
This border is based on
Evelyn De Morgan's S O S
(British, 1855-1919) 1916
[for educational use only]